When it is time to start learning to read, around the age of five or six, it is when we become aware of the difficulty of this first learning for children. It may seem easy at first, but we end up understanding its vast complexity and especially when we discover that there are different systems. Among the most widespread methods, we find the so-called phonetic method for teaching children to read, but you are also the syllabic method.
Both methods, both phonetic and syllabic, have advantages and disadvantages and have a variety of opinions and preferences from teachers, parents and students. Specifically, while the syllabic method proposes to focus learning on combinations of vowels with consonants (for example: reading the word “house” as / ca // sa /), the phonetic method tries to focus its learning on the sound of each letter (for example: reading the word "house" as / c // a // s // a /).
Before starting the phonetic reading, it will be important to have acquired the 27 letters of the alphabet, not only as spellings (a, be, ce, de, e, efe, etc.) but also their sonic or phonetic characteristics as isolated sound (/ a /, / b /, / k /, / d /, etc.). Doing it dividing the alphabet into 5 levels according to their vowels and with the help of songs can be more comfortable:
Level 1: A B C D
Level 2: E F G H
Level 3: I J K L M N
Level 4: O P Q R S T
a Level 5: U V W X Y Z
Once the alphabet has been learned, a little preparation of essential material will be necessary. This will consist of small white cards with large black letters that we can easily make by hand or with the help of the computer. And mainly we can group them into five possible levels:
- Voiced consonants
In this first level we will make small cards of the 15 consonants with sonorous characteristics, understanding by sonorous sounds those that can be lengthened. Being the consonants b / d / f / g / j / l / m / n / ñ / r / s / v / x / y / z.
- Deaf consonants
In this second level we will make small cards of the 5 consonants with deaf characteristics, understanding by deaf sounds those short sounds that cannot be lengthened. Being the consonants c / k / qu / p / t.
- Direct consonant syllables
In this third level we will make small cards combining 19 consonants with the 5 vowels of the alphabet, obtaining a total of 95 cards. Being the consonants b / c / d / f / g / h / j / l / m / n / ñ / p / r / s / t / v / x / y / z and the vowels a / e / i / o / u, and their possible combinations: pa, pe, pi, po, pu, sa, se, si, so, su, etc.
- Vocal reverse syllables - consonant
In this fourth level we will make small cards combining 6 consonants with the 5 vowels of the alphabet, obtaining a total of 30 cards. Being the consonants l / m / n / r / s / z and the vowels a / e / i / o / u, and their possible combinations: al, el, il, ol, ul, az, ez, iz, oz, uz , etc.
- Locked syllables consonant - consonant - vowel
In this last level we will make small cards combining the groups / l / with 5 consonants bl / pl / fl / gl / cl and the consonant groups / r / with 7 consonants br / pr / fr / gr / cr / dr / tr, and all of them combined in turn with the 5 vowels of the alphabet, obtaining a total of 60 cards. Being its possible combinations: bla, ble, bli, blo, blu, dra, dre, dri, dro, etc.
From the learning of these first reading cards, we will be able to progress towards reading words and small texts much more easily. Having a much more consolidated first baseman, it will be possible to train the double objective of greater speed and fewer errors.
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