The development of logical thinking is a process that depends on the cognitive area and that consists of the acquisition of knowledge about the environment that surrounds us, helping us to develop our intelligence and our capacities. Play is an essential tool for stimulate children's logic, but the activities that we propose must be according to their age. And that's what we're going to explore next.
The development of reasoning is a process that begins at birth and continues through childhood and adolescence. This process occurs within well-defined stages where the little ones reach different levels of cognitive development depending on their evolutionary rhythm. In other words, All children will acquire the logical cognitive abilities necessary for their development, but each one will do so in 'their' moment.
To talk about the stages of logical reasoning we will look at Piaget's theory that allows us to know how a child interprets his surroundings as he grows.
According to Piaget there are 4 stages. Each one of them is designed to stimulate the growth and cognitive interest of children in order to improve the basic processes that occur throughout their lives. These are:
1. Sensorimotor or sensorimotor stage (0 to 2 years)
The child begins to unfold in a totally new world for him. At this time he develops his senses, which are his main form of learning. Touching, looking, tasting and smelling serve to:
- To exercise The reflections that develop in the first month of life and that will serve to establish the foundations of the principle of assimilation.
- Discover procedures. At 4 months they are already interested in understand what happens around it.
- Intentional conduct. At 8 months they appear conscious intentions with respect to the environment.
- The scan appears. About a year and a half, children put aside repetitive behaviors and try new forms of behavior.
- From the year and a half appears mental representation that will allow you to make your first reasoning.
2. Pre-operational stage (2 to 7 years)
At this stage, children have more representative knowledge, which makes them improve their skills and guarantee a better way of communicating and learning. They start using persuasion tools to get what they want. However, as children do not yet fully understand logic, they are not yet capable of manipulating information or making people comply with their point of view.
3. Stage of concrete operations (7 to 12 years)
It is the moment of the first reasoning. In this stage, the ability of children to organize their ideas and have rational thinking is deepened. The skills that children have learned during the previous stages are demonstrated.
4. Stage of formal operations (12 years and older)
In this last stage, children begin to develop a more abstract vision and more logical thinking. At this point in development, children begin to develop more sophisticated and advanced cognitive skills.
Logic is something that comes from birth. The adults around the child will be responsible for promoting the development of this ability. Family, friends, teachers do not have to limit themselves to the stage of formal operations, which is when logical thinking is considered to be at its peak. We can work on cognitive skills almost since they are babies.
- In the sensorimotor stage
Talking with the baby, taking him for a walk, putting on music, giving him caresses are good stimuli to their senses, fundamental for 'the road that remains to be covered'. Using games to distinguish shapes, colors or textures or the use of rattles are beneficial as they are considered the first logic games.
- The pre-operational stage
It is a stage in which role plays and imitation are the best for the child to acquire skills such as socializing, symbolizing and relating. The color and size sorting games will also help you learn to reason.
- The stage of concrete operations
From the age of 7 they develop some fundamental logical principles, mathematical games and group games are very beneficial. Games like: chess, wooden tetris, tangram, etc.
- The stage of concrete operations
At this stage, abstraction is more important when developing logical thinking, therefore games that are based on logic and reasoning problems will be recommended. Board, role-playing or memory games will be very beneficial.
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