We all know the traditional and established technique of ultrasound to know the sex of the baby, although with it it is not until week 20 when one can know with certainty said data. This information is so desired by some pregnant women that, this time, we are going to talk about the different prenatal diagnosis techniques to know the sex of the baby.
The sex of an embryo is decided at the time of the fertilization process, when the egg and its 23 X chromosomes join the 23 chromosomes of the sperm. If the embryo ends up with a 46 XX combination, it will be genetically female, and if a 46 XY embryo is finally obtained, the sex will be male.
exist various prenatal diagnostic techniques to know in advance which has come out the result of the chromosome combination of the parents. From embryology, the science that studies the development of the embryo, both invasive and non-invasive techniques have been developed to determine the gender that the future baby will acquire. It should be taken into account that invasive techniques are not usually applied in order to recognize the sex of the baby, but rather to detect genetic abnormalities.
- Corial Biopsy
This first invasive technique is a procedure that is based on the extraction of a sample from the placenta, through the cervix, or through abdominal puncture. This technique can be used from the ninth week of pregnancy to obtain reliable results. However, as we have been warning, this type of technique is only available to couples who are at risk of developing a genetically abnormal embryo.
A second invasive technique is amniocentesis. This test is later and can be performed from the 15th week of gestation. It consists of extracting the amniotic fluid in the mother with a long and fine needle, through the abdominal wall. After cultivating some cells obtained, it will be possible to study their chromosomes.
Although the determination of the baby gender It will be exact, given the high level of certainty that this technique has, it will never be used for this purpose. In fact, this method is often used in patients at risk of developing a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities. The most common diseases that are usually tried to identify with this technique are Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Patau syndrome, as well as confirmation of the carrier status in family diseases.
- Ramzi method
On the other hand, we can find non-invasive techniques that allow us to know the sex of the embryo without putting the life of the future baby or the mother at risk. One of them was developed by the prestigious gynecologist Ramzi. Identifying the sex of the fetus is basically done by studying the position of the placenta with respect to the fetus. According to Dr. Ramzi, chromosomes have polarity to each other, just like batteries do, and therefore XY embryos stick to one side and XX chromosomes to the other.
In summary, in ultrasounds whose placenta is positioned on the left, the fetus will have XX chromosomes (girl), and, if the placenta is on the right, the embryo turns out to have XY chromosomes (boy). So, with this method, it is possible to know the sex of the baby from the first time an ultrasound is performed, with a reliability rate of 97%; although it cannot be applied in cases of multiple pregnancies, or ectopic ones.
- Non-invasive prenatal test (TPNI)
Finally, one of the most current procedures that also allows to know the sex of the embryo in a non-invasive way, is by means of an extraction and analysis of the mother's blood.
During gestation, but never before week 9, the mother's blood contains DNA fragments from the cytotrophoblast (so this is actually an indirect detection method). Although this test is usually intended for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities, with a reliability of over 95%, as the mother is a woman, she will never have Y chromosomes, whose presence is only detected in men.
This analysis therefore seeks to detect or not Y chromosomes in the mother's blood. If Y chromosomes are present, the fetus is male, but if they are not present, the sex will be female. This method can be done from the seventh week of pregnancy and the results could be obtained in as little as 48 hours after drawing the blood.
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